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Genome of early Europeans

The ancient genome shed new light on early Europeans and their relationships with Neanderthals

An international research team has sequenced the genomes of the most ancient ancient modern humans in Europe who lived about 45,000 years ago in the Pachu Kiro Cave, Bulgaria. By comparing their genomes with the genomes of people who later lived in Europe and Asia, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, showed that this early human group in Europe contributed to the genes of people later, especially in present-day East Asia. The researchers also identified large stretches of Neanderthal DNA in the genomes of the Bacho Kiro Cave people, indicating that their Neanderthal ancestors go back five to seven generations in their family history. This admixture with Neanderthals was the rule rather than the exception when the first modern humans arrived in Europe.

Last year, a research team led by researchers from the National Institute of Archeology with a museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany reported the discovery of modern human remains found in direct connection with the first Upper Paleolithic. Stone tools at the Bachu Kiro Cave site in Bulgaria. The oldest individuals found in the cave were direct radiocarbonate individuals and dated between 43,000 and 46,000 years ago. It is thus the oldest known spread of modern humans across the middle latitudes of Eurasia.

Matija Hajdingak and colleagues have now sequenced the genomes of five individuals found in the Bachu Kiro Cave. Four individuals are between 43,000 and 46,000 years old and were found with stone tools belonging to the Upper Paleolithic, the oldest culture associated with modern humans in Eurasia. An additional individual was found in the cave around 35,000 years old and found with stone tools of a later type. It was previously believed that the bearers of the Upper Paleolithic died without a genetic contribution to the later arrival of modern humans. However, researchers have now shown that the oldest individuals of the Bacho Kiro Cave, or groups closely related to them, contributed to the genes of people today. Surprisingly, this contribution is found especially in East Asia and the Americas and not in Europe where the Pachu Kiro cave dwellers live. These genetic links to Asia reflect the links seen between the primary stone tools of the Upper Paleolithic and the personal ornaments found in the Bachu Kiro Cave and the ancient tools and jewelry found across Eurasia to Mongolia.

Genetic differences between individuals

Most importantly, the 35,000-year-old individual found in the Pachu Kiro Cave belonged to a group that was genetically distinct from the early cave dwellers. This demonstrates that the earliest history of modern humans in Europe may have been turbulent and included population replacement.

The closest people lived in the Bacho Kiro Cave at a time when Neanderthals were still around. So the researchers scanned their genomes for bits of Neanderthal DNA. “We found that the Bacho Kiro Cave individuals have higher levels of Neanderthal ancestry than nearly all early humans, except for a 40,000-year-old individual from Romania. Crucially, most of this Neanderthal DNA comes in very long periods. This indicates that these individuals are They had Neanderthal ancestors about five to seven generations in their family trees, “says Matija Hajdengak.

Although only a few genomes of modern humans who lived at the same time in Eurasia as some of the last Neanderthals have been recovered, almost all of them have the ancestors of modern Neanderthals. The results indicate that the first modern humans to reach Eurasia frequently mixed with Neanderthals. They may even be assimilated into the resident Neanderthal population. Only later did larger modern human groups arrive and replace Neanderthals, ”says Svante Papu, who coordinated the genetic research.

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Original post

Mattia Hajdengak, Fabrizio Mavisoni, Lorets Skov, Benjamin Vernot, Alexander Huebner, Kiaomi Fu, Elena Eisel, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Julia Richter, Awana Theodora Moldovan, Silvio Konstantin, Elena Endarova, Nikolai Zahariev, M. Virginie Sinet-Mathiot, Lindsey Paskulin, Helen Fewlass, Sahra Talamo, Eljko Rezek, Svoboda Sirakova, Nikolay Sirakov, Shannon P. McPherron, Tsenka Tsanova, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Benjamin M. Skoglund, Janet Kelso and Svante Pappo
The Neanderthals of the Upper Paleolithic Europe had a modern lineage of Neanderthals.
Temperate nature; April 7, 2021

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